Moringa oleifera Lam
Synonyms: Guilandina moringa Lam
Moringa tree is a small tree, 5-10 meters high. The bark is thick, notched. Body hairy. Leaves compound, alternate, 3 times feathery, 30 - 60 centimeters long, 6 - 9 pairs of leaflets ovate, opposite, 1.3 - 2 centimeters long, 0.6 - 1.0 centimeters wide. Inflorescences panicle in leaf interstitium, bracts thread-shaped, flowers white, somewhat similar to legume flowers, calyx with 5 oblong, curved teeth, 5-petal spoon-shaped corolla, stamens 5, hairy stamens at base, upper bulb, 1 cell, hairy. Flowering season: April - June. Fruit season: July - September. Brown fruit, triangular cross-section, drooping, open in 3 pieces, 30 - 50 (- 120) centimeters long or more, 1 wide. ,5 – 2.5 centimeters, contains about 20 seeds in the core. Seeds light or dark brown with 3 edges and white wings, membranous, 1 - 1.4 centimeters in diameter, 0.5 - 2.5 centimeters long. There are about 3,000 – 9,000 seeds per kilogram. The bark is gray-white, thick, soft, fissured and rough. When injured, the bark will secrete a white gum but then it will turn red-brown or black-brown under the influence of the environment.
In Vietnam, Moringa grows wild or is planted scatteredly in the southern provinces, from Da Nang, Nha Trang, Phan Thiet to Kien Giang and the whole island of Phu Quoc. The plant likes light and hot and humid tropical climate, tolerates rainfall of 750 - 2200 mm, temperature of 3 - 38 (48) 0C. Moringa can live and grow on many types of soil, from red basalt soil in the Central Highlands to sandy clay or sandy soil in coastal areas. Plants grown by seeds or branches, after 2 years begin to flower. Moringa usually loses its leaves in winter or dry season (in the South). The season of leaves and shoots often coincides with the flowering season. Due to being domesticated and cultivated for a long time, Moringa tree has had many different variations. In particular, the most important feature to distinguish between varieties is the length and color of the fruit (60 - 90 centimeters and 90 - 120 centimeters). Moringa grown in the southern provinces belongs to the group of short fruits (60 - 90 centimeters).
The plant parts contain many important minerals and are a good source of proteins, vitamins, b- carotene, amino acids and many phenolic compounds...Isolation of pyrrolemarumine 4" – O –a– L - rhamnopyranoside and 4' - hydroxyphenylethanamide from Moringa leaves. Determination of crypto-chlorogenic acid, isoquercetin, and astragalin compounds from Moringa leaf extract by density TLC method. Linked DNA and FT-IR spectroscopy properties of SC-CO2 extracts from Moringa leaves, roots and seeds.
Moringa can help improve the nutrition of people living with HIV/AIDS while also making medicine and providing nutrients for HIV-positive patients.
Moringa Seed: Relieves pain and reduces fever.
The saponin compound from Moringa has a protective effect on liver and kidney tissue.
Anti-ulcer and antioxidant for alcohol and aspirin of Moringa leaf extract.
Moringa leaves have components such as flavonoids, hyperosides, rutosides, terpenoids, oleanoic acid, b-sitosterol all with antioxidant activity.
Moringa leaf extract showed strong antibacterial activity against Candida albicans, and Gram (+) bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus feacalis and weak activity against Gram (-) bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella thyphimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The effect of Moringa seeds in settling, sterilizing bacteria causing intestinal diseases in the treatment of dirty water can be applied to flood areas in Vietnam.
Chemical composition in each part of Moringa:
Moringa Leaves: Contains gum and 2 alkaloids, moringi and moringinin. Flanonoid and phenolic compounds such as kaempferol 3–O–a–rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin, quercetin 3–O -b-glucoside. The flavonol glycosides identified were all kaempferides bound to rhamnosides or glucosides. Glucosides with the nitrile group: niazirin (I) and niazirinin (II).
Moringa Flower: Contains polysaccharides used as additives in the pharmaceutical industry
Moringa seeds: Contains peptides, separated on cephadex G25 column to get 14 peptides that inhibit the growth of fungi. Extracted with phosphate buffer solution, after ion exchange, the protein is separated with amino acid chains including arginine, glutamine and proline. The seeds also contain glucosinolates up to 9% after the seeds have been defatted. phenol carboxylic acids such as 1–b–D–glucosyl–2,6–dimethyl benzoate. Fatty oil(20 - 50%): the main part consists of fatty acids such as oleic acid (60–70%), palmitic acid (3–12%), stearic acid (3–12%) and other fatty acids such as behenic acid, eicosanoic and lignoceric acid…
Moringa stem bark: Contains benzylanin and b-sitosterol, gum contains arabinose, galactose, glucuronic acid and traces of rhamnose. From the gum, leucoanthocyanin was extracted and identified as leucodelphinidin–3–0-b-D–galactopyranosyl (1 – 4) – 0 – b-D –glucopyranoside.
Moringa Root: Contains glucosinolates such as 4 (a-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate (about 1%) after being subjected to the action of myrosinase enzyme will give 4–(a–L–rhamnosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, glucotropaeolin (approx. 0.05%) and benzyl isothiocyanate.
Systemic: Contains pterygospermin, which is resistant to Gram (–), Gram (+) and acidophilic bacteria.
Nutritional composition: Moringa contains more than 90 nutrients, which play an important role in protecting human health, helping to reduce the risk of degenerative diseases and curing common diseases. On the other hand, with the ability to be rich in nutrients, fresh Moringa leaves are currently being considered by WHO and FAO as an effective solution for mothers who lack milk, pregnant women, malnourished children and children. Weaning at the age of 1 - 3. Indeed, a child under 3 years of age when consuming 30 grams of Moringa leaf powder per day can provide more than 1/3 protein, 75% calcium and more than ½need iron. for body. For pregnant and lactating mothers, just using 100 grams of fresh leaves a day is enough to supplement calcium, vitamin C, vitamin A, iron, copper, magnesium, sulfur, essential B vitamins in day. Scientists compared the superior nutritional content of fresh Moringa leaves (100 grams) and typical foods and fruits commonly used, such as oranges, carrots, milk and bananas if the same weight. Moringa tree is now widely and diversely used in many countries around the world in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, nutritional beverage and functional food industries. Developing countries use Moringa as a miracle medicine, combining treatment of serious diseases, common diseases and nutritious food: Parts of the Moringa tree such as fruit, young leaves, flowers and branches Young can be used as a vegetable, but must be cooked. The leaves stimulate digestion, the fruit is strong, used in cooking curries, the oil from the seeds is used as cooking oil. Moringa leaves are rich in nutrients that contain many important minerals such as protein, vitamins, b-carotene, amino acids and many compounds that are difficult to find in other plants such as zeatin, flavonoid compounds (quercetin, isoquercetin, rutin). , b–sistosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol….) according to “U Eilert, B Wolters, A Nahrstedt, 1981”. Therefore, today it is widely used in food by many different uses or creating diverse products such as tea, nutritional drinks, packaged dried Moringa leaves, etc.
Medicine: Parts of the plant such as leaves, roots, seeds, bark, fruits and flowers... all contain moringinin, which has the effect of stimulating digestion, dysentery, edema, rheumatism, stimulating activity. of the heart and circulatory system, anti-tumor, anti-tumor, anti-epileptic, anti-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant - antioxidant, diabetes treatment, liver protection, antibiotic and anti-fungal….
Cosmetics: Moringa is widely used in skin care technology and high-end cosmetics
Water treatment: Moringa seeds contain a number of natural "multi-electrolyte" compounds that can be used as a precipitant to make water, disinfecting water is widely applied in rural areas and areas - flood like in Vietnam.
Moringa oleifera Lam. is the best known of the 13 species of the genus Moringa, widely distributed in Africa and Asia. Studies show that different parts of Moringa contain nutrients such as protein, vitamins A, C, E, and b-carotene… At the same time, Moringa is also a combination of other nutrients. precious ingredients such as isoquercetin, zeatin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid, kaempferol, kaempferitrin, rhamnetin, rhamnose. At the same time, Moringa leaves are a very good source of antioxidants that help prevent disease and aging, it contains essential amino acids such as methionine, cystine, tryptophan and lysine with high protein content. Extracts from the leaves, roots and seeds of Moringa are effective in healing wounds, preventing tumors, treating low blood pressure, epilepsy, fever, pain relief, spasms, diuretics, fungi. , and bacteria… Many applications in medicine, cosmetics, food and oil production, in addition it can bring rich benefits in the future.